FAQ
20210325_Keystone_SpringMarketing_1404.j

FAQs

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COVID-19

How is the COVID-19 virus spread?


The official position of the World Health Organization (WHO) is that this virus is spread by contact with large respiratory droplets, directly or indirectly by touching contaminated surfaces and then touching the eyes, nose, or mouth. However, research is underway to determine the degree of airborne spread—meaning virus in particles so small that they remain suspended in air. Such aerosol results from the evaporation of larger respiratory particles generated by coughs, sneezes, ordinary speech, singing, and possibly by faulty plumbing systems, as occurred with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus. How much of the virus responsible for COVID-19 is spread by the airborne route is not clear, but recommendations for healthcare workers to use fitted respirators, not surgical masks, reveal official concern for airborne transmission. The possibility that inhaled virus may result in more-severe lung damage than acquisition by other routes—for example, via the mouth, nose, or eye—is currently being investigated.




What is the CDC’s stance on alternative disinfection methods, such as ultrasonic waves, high intensity UV radiation, and LED blue light?


The efficacy of these disinfection methods against the virus that causes COVID-19 is not known. EPA only recommends use of the surface disinfectants identified on List Nexternal icon against the virus that causes COVID-19. EPA does not routinely review the safety or efficacy of pesticidal devices, such as UV lights, LED lights, or ultrasonic devices. However, CDC is producing guidance on use of Germicidal ultraviolet as an alternative disinfection method. Therefore, EPA cannot confirm whether, or under what circumstances, such products might be effective against the spread of COVID-19. For more information on CDC’s recommendations for primary surface disinfection in occupied environments please visit the CDC/EPA guidance for surface disinfection.





Immaculight™

If there is an individual with COVID-19 present in a room, how effective is the Immaculight™ at protecting others from infection who are within close proximity of that person?


The Wells-Riley Equation can be applied in response to this question using airflow dynamics as the main variable. The secondary variables to the risk of infection are the particle sizes expelled, the viral load (contagion), inhalation, and time. Additionally, the height, speed, and manner in which a particle is being carried through the air must be considered as primary variables and hazards to airborne infection. The Immaculight™ offers the best solution to those looking for optimal protection against anyone in a room carrying a viral load from COVID-19. Simply put, VENTILATION (airflow) and the extent to which that airflow is purified, is fundamental. Clean air is 100% processed by our fixture and dropped into safe zones that reside within the strata of air that is being inhaled. See our white paper for additional information.




Is the Immaculight less effective in areas with minimal air circulation?


Immaculight actually makes rooms with less air "circulation" safer for the above reason. We mechanically induce ventilation and mix clean air into the rooms with high-volume room air changes.




Immaculight is described as a surface cleaner – surface transmission of COVID-19 has generally proven to be less likely than air transmission. How does the Immaculight kill airborne Covid-19 particles and do the air particles have to pass directly through the unit to be purified?


Within Immaculight™, air first passes through a ceramic mesh of titanium dioxide embedded with TiO2 nanoparticles, which are rutile-state reflective crystals. They are highly reactive to ultraviolet light. The ceramic mesh used is irradiated by powerful UVA 365 light, thereby forming a cloud of highly reactive electrons and subsequent ROS. The UVA light irradiance itself is also destructive, so dual toxicity begins immediately within Immaculight™. Intense 265 nm UVC light (30 joules) bathes the air for up to 36 seconds. This mechanism, along with The ROS inactivate microorganisms, including viral pathogens. The ROS oxidation process produces no noxious compounds





Air Flow

How long do virus particles and bacteria remain airborne?


This is important, but difficult to answer in a simple fashion and it depends on how the microbes were made airborne, e.g., from a sneeze or cough, or by being blown up from surfaces or dusted off clothes. The smallest particles (1- to 5-µm droplet nuclei) can remain airborne much longer than cough droplets—for many minutes or even hours.




How can airborne spread viruses be reduced?


Diagnosis of infectious cases and their isolation is a critical intervention, but transmission from asymptomatic persons is believed to play an important role in community transmission. In the U.S., the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended that everyone wear non-medical face covers to reduce spread by respiratory droplets, both large and small. Heathcare workers should wear well fitted respirators designed to exclude airborne particles, in addition to following all contact precautions. For the airborne component, ventilation, social distancing, and other means of air disinfection are expected to have a role. Natural ventilation outdoors and in homes can be highly effective where conditions are optimal in terms of airflow and temperature. Mechanical ventilation can be effective, but 6 to 12 air changes per hour (ACH) are recommended in general for air disinfection or dilution. Upper-room GUV air disinfection is a primary means of safe and highly effective air disinfection, provided it is planned, installed, commissioned, and maintained according to current international standards. A knowledgeable consultant is recommended. Room air cleaners, disinfecting air through HEPA filters, in-duct UV lamps, or other methods seem attractive, but their clean-air delivery rate when converted to room ACH is often trivial—no more than 1 or 2 added ACH. GUV in-duct air disinfection is a secondary approach to treating any recirculated air.




Can your product be affective when competing for movement of air?


We are pushing or displacing continuous clean air into a zone under the fixture at 4 pounds of pressure, which is about 53 CFU. Airflow dynamics in a space is one of the most complex and variable factors environments that scientists and epidemiologists have to conider in disease transmission. Recent REHVA guidelines advise HVAC vendors to slow exhaust rates and make sure that they are not exhausting through the breathing strata. The answer is that yes, we can and are effective - at worst, we affect ventilation and dilution within a specific zone. At best, we effectively push microbes away from the zone using downward and outward displacement. Their responsibility is to eliminate cross-space exhaust, including direct downward ventilation. Also, with high-quality ACH, we enable their HVAC systsems to ingest cleaner air.





UVC

Can UV-C kill viruses as well as bacteria?


Yes, UV-C kills living bacteria, but viruses are technically not living organisms; thus, we should correctly say “inactivate viruses.” Individual, energetic UV-C photons photochemically interact with the RNA and DNA molecules in a virus or bacterium to render these microbes non-infectious. This all happens on the microscopic level. Viruses are less than one micrometer (µm, one-millionth of a meter) in size, and bacteria are typically 0.5 to 5 µm.




Can UV-C effectively inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus, responsable for COVID-19?


Yes, if the virus is directly illuminated by UV-C at the effective dose level. UV-C can play an effective role with other methods of disinfection.




What are the bi-products and how harmful are they e.g. generating ozone because of UV light?


The Immaculight Air Guardian fixture does not emit any UV light because the UV energy is only used within the sealed device.

Certain UV light wavelengths, especially in the most energetic UV zone, between 100-200 nm, generate ozone when interacting with 02 (oxygen) molecules. They do so by photolysis of oxygen molecules, O2, in creating O- and O3, O3 being an ozone molecule.

Wavelengths above 200 can also produce ozone, in certain spectrums, using the same process, in wavelengths shorter than 240 nm - also via photolysis of the oxygen molecule.

However, UV wavelengths between 240-280 nm also destroy ozone via the same photolysis process of the ozone molecule.

So, a summary:

  1. UV light will create ozone from atmospheric oxygen at short wavelengths of less than 240 nanometers (nm).
  2. UV light will also destroy ozone and break ozone back down into atomic oxygen (O) and diatomic oxygen (O2) molecules at wavelengths from about 240 nm to 280 nm.

Therefore, the irradiance of precisely-tuned wavelengths (like ours at 265 nm) can destroy ozone (O3) molecules by photolysis of the third electron in the ozone molecule, reducing it from O3 (ozone) to O2 (oxygen).





Air Guardian™

What amount of time is the air exposed to UV?


Captured air is exposed to a constant dose of UV: Within the 2x2' Air Guardian™ for 12-17 seconds Within the 2x4' Air Guardian™ for 17-25 seconds




How many filter requirements do you suggest?


We don't believe that HEPA-type filters materially impact the disinfection and purification in the Air Guardian. We are using such high reflectivity and energy (the reflectivity increases the 30 joules of CleanBox energy within the actual corridors, too) against air in a captured space,over time, that our Log reductions and particle destructions don't require significant filtration. I understand they might think we need more, but I can explain.





All

Does UVC kill viruses as well as bacteria?


Yes, UVC kills living bacteria. Viruses, however, are technically not living organisms. Thus, to say UVC “inactivates” viruses would be appropriate. Individual, energetic UVC photons photochemically interact with the RNA and DNA molecules in a virus or bacterium to render these microbes non-infectious. This all happens on the microscopic level. Viruses are less than one micrometer (µm, one-millionth of a meter) in size, and bacteria are typically 0.5 to 5 µm. Depending on the dose, or energy of the UV-C, as well as the wavelength of the light, UV-C can evoke other mechanisms of actions to inactive or destroy viral species. High-energy, low wavelength UV-C energy, in wavelengths under 200nm, can be effective, although these low UV-C wavelengths are known to create ozone, which can be harmful when present in higher quantities when humans are present.




Does UV light effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19?


Yes. UV irradiance inactivates the virus. The extent of viral inactivation, using UV light, has three variables: wavelength, dose (energy in Watts or Joules), and time under dose. When directly illuminated at the effective dose level, in the effective wavelength, for the proper amount of time, UV light will inactivate SARS-CoV-2, as well as other coronaviral strains and other viruses, including SSRNA and RNA viruses. The Air Guardian uses UV-A and UV-C wavelengths in its mechanisms of actions. Air Guardian dose energies vary by product type, but the total dose in Watts (Joules) and time far exceed the required dose energy and time to inactivate viruses, including SARS-CoV-2.




How is the COVID-19 virus spread?


Multiple studies have been conducted on the disease transmission process of COVID-19, from the SSRNA human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The most current research has compelled specific infection prevention guidance from the WHO and Centers for Disease Control. The research concludes that transmission can occur via surface contact (and transmission to human mucus membranes, open wounds, or other vectors) as well as, importantly, airborne droplets and viral particles. From https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03331 The propagation of respiratory droplets plays a critical role in delivering pathogen-carrying agents to susceptible hosts. Respiratory droplets are generated by talking, coughing, and sneezing, with initial speeds ranging from ∼1 to >100 m/s. Extensive studies have been conducted to investigate the formation, traveling, and infectivity of respiratory droplets. The airborne spread of small respiratory droplets and droplet nuclei under different indoor configurations and ventilation designs have been studied to evaluate the indoor infections. Predictions of the infection probability under certain circumstances have been reported as well. These past studies suggest that, during the spread of respiratory droplets, both aerodynamics and evaporation determine the effectiveness of virus propagation.




How long do virus particles and bacteria remain airborne?


Virus particles and bacteria may remain airborne for many minutes or hours, depending upon how these microbes become airborne (i.e.: from a sneeze or cough, or by being blown up from surfaces or dusted off clothes). The smallest particles (1- to 5-µm droplet nuclei) can remain airborne for much longer periods of time than cough droplets. From COVID-19: Effects of Environmental Conditions on the Propagation of Respiratory Droplets Lei Zhao, Yuhang Qi, Paolo Luzzatto-Fegiz, Yi Cui, and Yangying Zhu ...Droplets travel farther in low-temperature and high-humidity environments, whereas the number of aerosol particles increases in high-temperature and low-humidity environments. In particular, the 6 feet of physical distance recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is insufficient to eliminate all possible droplet contacts in certain cold and humid environments. The risk of aerosol transmission may be increased in summer, as hot and dry environments facilitate the accumulation of PM 2.5 Once released, the droplets begin to evaporate while moving under various forces (gravity, buoyancy, and air drag). As a result, large droplets can directly land on another person, and small droplets dehydrate and become solid aerosol particles containing pathogens, salts, enzymes, cells, and surfactants. Aerosol particles are capable of causing long-range infection because of their long suspension time in air. On the other hand, the infection range of large droplets is limited to a relatively short distance, because the droplets can directly land on the upper body of another person before drying. AND For respiratory droplets with diameters smaller than 100 μm, the time constant τ is less than 0.05 s, indicative of a strong damping effect of air. Although large aerosol particles can be suspended in air for at least 25 min, small aerosol particles are suspended substantially longer, which agrees with the previous literature. We further calculate the steady-state total mass m of PM2.5 produced by one patient that speaks continuously in an enclosed and unventilated space with a volume of V . The generation rate of speech droplets is from a previous study. The steady state is reached when the number of aerosol particles produced from speaking is equal to the number of particles depositing onto the ground. Given the value of V and the average number of patients, m can be used to estimate the number density of pathogen-carrying PM2.5 in the air. Figure2d presents m in different environmental conditions. There is slightly more PM2.5 suspending in air in a hot and dry environment than in a cold and humid environment. This is mainly due to the increased suspension time in hot and dry environments as a result of the corresponding thermophysical properties of the air. ...the hot and dry environment not only increases the percentage of respiratory droplets turning into aerosols but also facilitates the accumulation of PM2.5 in an enclosed space. These observations raise concerns over aerosol transmission of COVID-19 in summertime, especially when the humidity is low. Background air velocity is another environmental factor that impact the transmission of contagious diseases. Here, we investigate the effect of the velocity of a horizontal airflow on the droplet spreading distance and aerosolization rate under a typical environment (T = 23 °C, RH = 0.50). In practice, the air velocity distribution can be quite complex, and detailed CFD models are required for a more accurate prediction. For indoor conditions, air velocity is generally maintained below 0.3 m/s for thermal comfort purposes. [when] We change the air speed from completely stagnant (V = 0 m/s) to V = 3 m/s to include diverse environmental settings. For a worst-case estimation, we consider a scenario where the airflow is always directed from a patient to another susceptible host. ... the spreading distance of droplets increases dramatically as the airflow velocity increases, which can reach 23 m at V = 3 m/s. In addition, the spreading distance of aerosol particles is greatly increased as well, as they are smaller in size and travel with the wind. In summary, improper airflow configurations may expand the traveling distance of pathogen-carrying droplets and aerosol particles, although introducing fresh outdoor air can effectively dilute the accumulation of infectious aerosol particles. This poses stringent requirements on the meticulous design of ventilation configurations in nonhospital facilities, so as to curb the transmission of COVID-19.




How can airborne spread viruses be reduced?


In general, a hierarchy of infection prevention measures is recognized with almost all guidance from health regulatory agencies, such as the CDC, EPA, and WHO; and air quality groups, such as ASHRAE and REHVA. That hierarchy looks like this: It is always recommended that a layering of different infection prevention measures is needed, with the foundation, as shown, as PPE, behavioral actions, and hygiene. No one solution is effective by itself. The highest level of infection prevention, as shown within this hierarchy, are mechanisms that provide for the continuous removal of airborne pathogens and particles at a high Log reduction level. Other details related to small particle (PM2.5). filtration, VOC reductions, and airflow dynamics are also important, and Air Guardian's superior functionality with regard to controlling these variables can be found in Air Guardian and Immaculight white papers and study results.




If there is an individual with COVID-19 present in a room, how effective is the Immaculight™ at protecting others from infection who are within close proximity of that person?


The Wells-Riley Equation can be applied in response to this question using airflow dynamics as the main variable. The secondary variables to the risk of infection are the particle sizes expelled, the viral load (contagion), inhalation, and time. Additionally, the height, speed, and manner in which a particle is being carried through the air must be considered as primary variables and hazards to airborne infection.

The Immaculight™ offers the best solution to those looking for optimal protection against anyone in a room carrying a viral load from COVID-19. Simply put, VENTILATION (airflow) and the extent to which that airflow is purified, is fundamental. Clean air is 100% processed by our fixture and dropped into safe zones that reside within the strata of air that is being inhaled.

See our white paper for additional information.




Is the Immaculight™ less effective in areas with minimal air circulation?


Immaculight™ creates safer environments for areas with less air "circulation" by mechanically inducing ventilation and mixing clean air with high-volume room air changes into the space.




Immaculight™ is described as a surface cleaner. Surface transmission of COVID-19 has generally proven to be less likely than air transmission. How does Immaculight™ kill airborne Covid-19 particles and do the air particles have to pass directly through the unit to be purified?


Air first passes through a ceramic mesh of titanium dioxide embedded with TiO2 nanoparticles (rutile-state reflective crystals) which are highly reactive to ultraviolet light. The ceramic mesh used is irradiated by powerful UVA 365nm light, thereby forming a cloud of highly reactive electrons and subsequent ROS. The UVA light irradiance itself is also destructive, so dual toxicity begins immediately within the Immaculight™. Intense 265nm UVC light (30 joules) bathes the air for up to 36 seconds. This mechanism, along with the ROS, inactivate microorganisms, including viral pathogens. The ROS oxidation process produces no noxious compounds.




Can your product be effective when competing for movement of air?


Yes. The Immaculight™ affects ventilation and dilution, creating continuous clean air zones by effectively pushing microbes away using downward and outward displacement and eliminating cross-space exhaust, including direct downward ventilation. With the addition of high-quality ACH, it enables HVAC systems to ingest cleaner air. Conclusively, the Immaculight™ pushes or displaces continuous clean air into a zone under the fixture at 4 pounds of pressure (roughly 53 CFU).

Airflow dynamics in a space is one of the most complex and variable environmental factors of which scientists and epidemiologists must consider in disease transmission. Recent REHVA guidelines advise HVAC vendors to slow exhaust rates to ensure they are not exhausting through the breathing strata.




How many filter requirements do you suggest?


Air Guardian uses three types of filtration:

  1. Ceramic honeycomb TiO2 nanoparticle-embedded photo-catalyzed (UV-A 365nm) initial filtration

  2. Super-micron filter, which is easily and inexpensively replaced as needed

  3. Carbon (charcoal) filtration, which is used in conjunction with the super-micron filter, and is replaced concurrent to the micron filter




Is 405nm on the visible spectrum?


Yes, the 405nm is visible light, just above the ultraviolet spectrum. It is harmless to humans but proven to destroy bacteria, mold, fungus, and yeast. The hue - or visible color - of that particular wavelength is violet/purple.

Usually, 405nm is just another element of normal visible spectrum. However, when that wavelength is engineered into a spike for disinfection purposes, it can dominate the visible spectrum with a violet/purple color.

Our patented chip not only prevents the violet/purple color from appearing, but it also suppresses harmful blue-light wavelengths in the 435~455nm spectrum that can damage the retinal cells in the eye.




Does 405/470nm wavelengths destroy good microorganisms (bacteria, etc.)?


Wavelengths matter. CleanWhite™ only emits blue light spikes of 405nm and 470nm. Harmful blue light wavelengths between 425~450nm (known to cause skin discoloration and damage retinal cells in the eye) are completely suppressed in the CleanWhite™ spectrum. Rather than removing "good bacteria" from the skin, dermatologists often use blue light in phototherapy to make the skin healthier. CleanWhite's™ 405/470nm wavelengths, given enough continuous exposure, will oxidize and reduce microbial colonies on any surface, including human skin.

Most beneficial microbes are inside our bodies and few are known to be beneficial to the skin. In fact, "contact transmission" of disease is usually the result of transferring harmful microbes on the skin to mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, and other areas.

See link for supporting research:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263892858_405_nm_light_technology_for_the_inactivation_of_pathogens_and_its_potential_role_for_environmental_disinfection_and_infection_control




Is it harmful to live or work in an isolated place for the long term (under CleanWhite™ luminaires)?


There are no harmful effects of working under 405/470nm wavelengths, regardless of the duration or periodicity. The fixture watts range from 50-120 and can be controlled incrementally.




What are the by-products of the UV light and how harmful are they? (e.g. generating ozone)


There is no UV light emitted from the Immaculight™. The UV energy is utilized only within a sealed device. Certain UV light wavelengths, especially in the most energetic UV zone (100~200nm) generate ozone when interacting with 02 (oxygen) molecules. They do so by photolysis of oxygen molecules, O2, in creating O- and O3; O3 being an ozone molecule.

Wavelengths above 200nm can also produce ozone in certain spectrums using the same process in wavelengths shorter than 240nm - also via photolysis of the oxygen molecule. However, UV wavelengths between 240~280nm also destroy ozone via the same photolysis process of the ozone molecule.

In summary:

  1. UV light will create ozone from atmospheric oxygen at short wavelengths of less than 240 nanometers (nm).
  2. UV light will also destroy ozone and break ozone back down into atomic oxygen (O) and diatomic oxygen (O2) molecules at wavelengths from about 240~280nm.

Therefore, the irradiance of precisely tuned wavelengths (like ours at 265nm) can destroy ozone (O3) molecules by photolysis of the third electron in the ozone molecule, reducing it from O3 (ozone) to O2 (oxygen).




Describe the mechanisms of action within the Air Guardian 2x4 Device


1. Air is first electrochemically filtered through a ceramic, nanoparticle UV-A process
2. Air is pushed for 28.7 feet with constant UV-C exposure
3. UV-C energies are intense and constant 4. Air is exposed to 33 square feet of TiO2 oxidation 5. Air is captured and processed for 45-60 seconds before venting 6. UV-C and Oxidation remove 99-99.9999% of pathogens, particles, and pollutants 7. Air is dual filtered through (HEPA-like) super-micron and carbon filters 8. Purified air is released at precise pressures to create constant downward displacement 9. Frequent, complete room air changes rates up to every few minutes are possible depending on device selection




Describe the mechanisms of action within the Air Guardian 2 x 2 device


1. Air is first electrochemically filtered through a ceramic, nanoparticle UV-A process
2. Air is pushed for 20.1 feet with constant UV-C exposure
3. UV-C energies are intense and constant 4. Air is exposed to 19.2 square feet of TiO2 oxidation 5. Air is captured and processed for 32-36 seconds before venting 6. UV-C and Oxidation remove 99-99.9999% of pathogens, particles, and pollutants 7. Air is dual filtered through (HEPA-like) super-micron and carbon filters 8. Purified air is released at precise pressures to create constant downward displacement 9. Frequent, complete room air changes rates up to every few minutes are possible depending on device selection




How does charged-particle disinfection, such as bipolar ionization, compare to Air Guardian and what are the differences in the two devices/methodologies?


  • Charged-particle ionization, also known bipolar ionization and needlepoint ionization can create positive ions, negative ions, or both
  • Particle/ion generators are usually in-duct but release ions via vented air from ducts
  • The charged particles usually interact with air and humidity (H20) and generate ions, which are typically ROS (reactive species)
  • The mechanism of action to kill or destroy pathogens or particles is to surround the pathogen, droplet, or particle and damage the cell walls
  • Exceptionally effective in PM2.5 particle removal
  • Some produce ozone, but many new systems don't produce material amounts (they eliminate most of what they produce)
  • Often, when ions and ROS interact with airborne microbes, residual particles fall from air to surface - so surface cleaning and, often, filtration is important
  • In some cases, HEPA or MERV filtration may also be required with BPI (bipolar ionization) or ANI (needlepoint ionization)
  • Unlike Air Guardian, charged particle disinfection does not offer airflow dynamic effects to impede transmission of airborne pathogens
Air Guardian provides frequent room air changes (ventilation), active air induction with highly effective pathogen removal (between 2-6 Log), and dilution via ventilated, downward air displacement. See our website and it will link you to the ASHRAE and CDC position on ionization (not recognized) https://www.immaculight.com/science
  • BPI doesn't provide ventilation or dilution as recommended by CDC, FDA, EPA, and ASHRAE
  • BPI can provide a layer of protection to supplement Air Guardian - but Air Guardian would be a primary infection prevention solution. Air Guardian provides frequent room air changes, high-level air disinfection and purification in a single pass at 99-99.9999%
Discussion Points How many pathogens are in the air?
Can BPI and NAI kills fast enough to prevent transmission?
How fast can NAI or BPI kill the volume of pathogens? (depends on particle or droplet size and number of pathogens)
Do NAI and BPI work in all use cases? (unknown but likely only minimally effective in some use cases)
What are the effects on human cognition? (see our Science page)




What amount of time is the air exposed to UV?


Captured air is exposed to a constant dose of UV: Within the 2x2' Air Guardian™ for 25-36 seconds Within the 2x4' Air Guardian™ for 45-60 seconds




What is the Immaculight device?


Immaculight is a multi-patented, multi-modal solution which provides the following: Continuous Room Air Disinfection, Filtration, Purification, and Precision Airflow - and Continuous Surface Disinfection. Immaculight is a powerful combination of illumiPure's Air Guardian and Clean White technologies. For more detailed information on Immaculight, please contact illumiPure or your local illumiPure product distributor. You may also complete the "Contact Us" sesction in the home page menu.




Where are the best use cases for Immaculight?


Immaculight, using both Air Guardian and CleanWhite technology, offers fundamental infection prevention and pathogen removal/inactivation in many use cases and settings. These include, but are not limited to, schools, hospital settings, clinics, dental practices, restaurants, food production, grow facilities, transportation, ambulance-EMT, fire and police, correctional, dialysis, long term care, nursing homes, athletic departments, hospitality, travel, retail, office space,and many others. Of special note: since Air Guardian uses UV-A, UV-C, and photo-catalyzed oxidation as primary methods of disinfection and purification, use cases in meat processing and packaging, poultry, pork, and other food processing industries can easily clean and maintain the Air Guardian device without the hazards and costs of frequent filter replacements.




What does the CDC say about UV-C and its ability to inactivate SARS-CoV-2?


From the CDC - Q: Can UVC lamps inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus? A: "UVC radiation is a known disinfectant for air, water, and nonporous surfaces. UVC radiation has effectively been used for decades to reduce the spread of bacteria, such as tuberculosis. For this reason, UVC lamps are often called "germicidal" lamps. UVC radiation has been shown to destroy the outer protein coating of the SARS-Coronavirus, which is a different virus from the current SARS-CoV-2 virus. The destruction ultimately leads to inactivation of the virus. UVC radiation may also be effective in inactivating the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which is the virus that causes the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, currently there is limited published data about the wavelength, dose, and duration of UVC radiation required to inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus. (See the Science Page on this website for peer-reviewed evidence that has been recently published - which validates that UV-C does indeed kill SARS-CoV-2, but high doses and lengthy periods may be required to achieve high Log reduction values). In addition to understanding whether UVC radiation is effective at inactivating a particular virus, there are also limitations to how effective UVC radiation can be at inactivating viruses, generally. Direct exposure: UVC radiation can only inactivate a virus if the virus is directly exposed to the radiation. Therefore, the inactivation of viruses on surfaces may not be effective due to blocking of the UV radiation by soil, such as dust, or other contaminants such as bodily fluids.
Dose and duration: Many of the UVC lamps sold for home use are of low dose, so it may take longer exposure to a given surface area to potentially provide effective inactivation of a bacteria or virus.
UVC radiation is commonly used inside air ducts to disinfect the air. This is the safest way to employ UVC radiation because direct UVC exposure to human skin or eyes may cause injuries, and installation of UVC within an air duct is less likely to cause exposure to skin and eyes. There have been reports of skin and eye burns resulting from improper installation of UVC lamps in rooms that humans can occupy.




What is a human coronavirus? How many types exist?


From: Cervino G, Fiorillo L, Surace G, Paduano V, Fiorillo MT, De Stefano R, Laudicella R, Baldari S, Gaeta M, Cicciù M. SARS-CoV-2 Persistence: Data Summary up to Q2 2020. Data. 2020; 5(3):81. https://doi.org/10.3390/data5030081 www.mdpi.com/2306-5729/5/3/81 "Coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s from the nasal passages of patients with the common cold. These viruses were later named Human Coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) and Human Coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43). Two other members of this family have been identified (Human Coronavirus NL63, HCoV-NL63, in 2004; Human Coronavirus HKU1, HCoV-HKU1, in 2005) and have been involved in severe respiratory tract infections. There are no vaccines (this is no longer valid given Moderna and Pfizer mRNA vaccines) or antiviral drugs considered valid (excluding Remdisovir for SARS-CoV-2) by the scientific community for the prevention or treatment of induced pathologies. A significant percentage of common colds in adults and children are caused by Coronaviruses. Frequently encountered symptoms are fever and acute adenoiditis with greater incidence during winter and early spring. In many cases, coronaviruses could cause pneumonia, direct viral pneumonia, or secondary bacterial pneumonia; they could also lead to the development of secondary bronchitis, direct viral bronchitis or bacterial bronchitis.
As of January 2020, seven coronavirus strains are known to be able to infect humans:
(1) Human Coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E);
(2) Human Coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43);
(3) Human Coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63);
(4) Human Coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HFU1);
(5) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
(6) Middle Eastern Coronavirus Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV)
(7) Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the COVID-19 disease. (1) Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) is a species of coronavirus that infects humans and bats. The species belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus and is the only one of the subgenus Duvinacovirus. It is a single-stranded, positive-sense enveloped RNA virus that enters its host cell by binding to the APN (Membrane alanyl aminopeptidase also known as alanyl aminopeptidase (AAP) or aminopeptidase N) receptor. HCoV-229E is associated with a range of respiratory symptoms, ranging from the common cold to high morbidity outcomes such as pneumonia and bronchiolitis. (2) The human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a viral strain of the Betacoronavirus 1 virus, which infects humans and livestock, of the genus Betacoronavirus of the subgenus Embecovirus, as it possesses haemagglutinin esterase (HE) among the surface proteins. It is a single-stranded, positive-sense enveloped RNA virus that enters its host cell by binding to the n-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid receptor. Together with the human coronavirus 229E, it is one of the viruses responsible for the common cold
(3) Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is a species of coronavirus identified in late 2004 in a seven-month-old baby with bronchiolitis in the Netherlands. The virus is a positive-sense monofilament RNA virus that enters its host cell via the ACE2 receptor. The virus originated from infected palm owls and bats. Infection with the virus has been confirmed worldwide, associated diseases include mild to moderate upper respiratory tract infections, severe lower respiratory tract infection, and bronchiolitis, also responsible for gastrointestinal manifestations. Recent data suggest an association of HCoV-NL63 infection with Kawasaki disease, a systemic vasculitis in childhood that can result in coronary artery aneurysms [36]. In the developed world, Kawasaki disease is the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children.
(4) Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) is a species of virus originating from infected mice, of!the genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Embecovirus, as it has the hemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene. In humans, the infection causes upper respiratory disease with symptoms of the common cold, but it can progress to pneumonia and bronchiolitis.
(5) The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, abbreviated to SARS-CoV (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome—Coronavirus), is a viral strain at the origin of the 2003 SARS epidemic. SARS-CoV is one of the positive polarity single-chain RNA viruses (group IV of the Baltimore classification), of the SARS-related coronavirus species, belonging to the genus of Betacoronavirus.
(6) MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) or coronavirus Middle East respiratory syndrome is a disease caused by the coronavirus MERS-CoV. The virus causing the pathology is a coronavirus similar to the virus causing SARS, but the disease it causes, although similar to SARS, seems to cause greater mortality, in fact, its lethality rate is approximately 34%, while for SARS it is 10%.
(7) The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, abbreviated to SARS-CoV-2 (acronym from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) previously named new coronavirus of 2019 (2019-nCoV, or also 2019 nCoV-ARD) is a viral strain of the SARS-related coronavirus/SARS-CoV species, belonging to the genus Betacoronavirus. Already described in the previous chapter.
The signa nCoV generically indicates new species or strains of coronavirus that have never previously been identified in humans




Can the Air Guardian device create static electricity in a room?


No. Air Guardian uses a catlyzed oxidation process that briefly generates ions, which, in turn, create reactive oxygen species. Among these species is the hydroxyl ion, a powerful oxidant. However, these chemical processes occur within the sealed device. No charged particles, as a result of oxidation or UV-C light are emitted from the device. The air vented from Air Guardian is purified ambient air, which includes O2, nitrogen, and small amounts of normal, safe, naturally-occuring molecules. Air Guardian therefore, does not generate or create static electricity. With lower winter temperatures, there is a marked lowering of humidity in the air. Thus, when charged particles form due to friction (atoms that are kinetically rubbed against other atoms, so that ions are discharged) in lower humidity, there are fewer H2O particles in ambient air to adsorb the particles. Thus, static. The lower the humidity, the higher the likelihood of spores forming due to microbes changing their states, when they desiccate, they can be aerosolized. The higher the humidity, the more likely mold, bacteria and fungus will increase colony size, but will be more surface bound. Thus, balanced humidity is important to indoor air quality.




Does Air Guardian emit any volatile compounds or off-gas any materials that are inherent in its design?


No, Air Guardian does not emit volatile compounds, harmful gaseous state molecules, or reactive ions when it processes 100% pure air molecules, including oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and other typical ambient air components.

When VOCs and harmful compounds are present in any space, Air Guardian is exceptionally efficient at removing them quickly. In recent laboratory testing, a sealed room was filled with large-particle smoke to the extent that there was zero visibility in the room. This air contained PM2.5 PM10, formaldehyde, carbon particulates, and other compounds. A single Air Guardian device completely removed all smoke and other particles in under 8 minutes.

This is an example of the Air Guardian oxidation process's intense utility. The ROS species continuously disassemble harmful molecular compounds into ambient air molecules as air is passed through a patented, complex channel pathway.

The duration of time air spends within the Air Guardian allows for the complete oxidation of VOC molecules - intense oxidation is the PRIMARY method used to eliminate VOCs like formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and d-limonene, as well as particulate PM2.5, PM10, and other particles.




How does the Air Guardian compare to stand-alone, mobile air filtration systems, which may include HEPAor MERV filters, UV light, or even oxidation?


Mobile, or floor-based models, even if they use UV-C, HEPA, MERV, and oxidation properties, have several characteristics which should merit serious consideration during any acquisition evaluation:

1. They cannot effectively capture room air (thus, eight units are needed for a single classroom) except low-room, spatially close distance

2. They vent air upward into the breathing zone, potentially across contaminated surfaces

3. They may be able to kill human coronavirus with their UV-C dose, but the amount of UV-C energy is limited by the design and material of the sealed fixture - and viral species are among the easiest to kill with UV-C light, even at a low dose

4. The photocatalyzed oxidation only occurs during a brief second or sub-second period, which is likely insufficient to disassemble and break down all volatile compounds ingested from ambient air.

Regarding the use of UV-C - There are several ways UV-C is used for disinfection. Mobile (typically floor-model units) are explained below.

1. Upper room UVGI, with open irradiance into the upper third of the room space - this method relies on airflow and simple convection to disinfect air as it passes through any upper-room area. It’s widely deployed and advanced in design. Most use UV-C “lamps.” The lamps have an expected lifespan of 8,000 hours

2. In-Duct UVGI in HVAC systems - can be deployed in complex or straightforward ways, depending on cost, engineering, and HVAC design. They usually irradiate using UV-C lamps. While they help control pathogenic growth in ductwork, factors such as the speed (in CFM) of airflow over lamps and the complexity and cost are limiting factors. It has also been shown that even perfectly clean air vented from HVAC systems can cause disease transmission by circulating in-room generated pathogens.

3. Sealed, upper-room UVGI systems - these represent the most UVGI design. In these devices, UV-C irradiance is generated by lamps within a sealed container. Air is ingested via intake fans, then passed across UV-C lamps before being vented from the same device. The limiting factor on the efficacy of these devices is also the speed of the airflow over the irradiant UV-C lamps.

4. Room-based, standalone UV-C and Air filtration devices - one would consider these an upgraded version of a home air cleaner model. In fact, medical-grade devices are often compared to systems used in the home, such as Dyson models. The variations on this design theme are endless. Claims made for room air changes and “single-pass” inactivation rates have drawn the attention of the EPA and FDA, and certain groups that monitor advertising claims.

How does Air Guardian compare with the many mobile filtration and disinfection devices?

The limiting factors regarding Room-based, standalone UV-C and Air filtration devices are the filtration systems' capabilities, and capacity, the speed of air over the UV-C lamps, and the ability to provide complete room air changes without spreading in-room generated pathogens.

Many lower-room systems also dangerously aerosolize surface pathogens with their venting at floor and surface levels.

How Air Guardian® is different

Two types of Air Guardian® medical devices are available. The most commonly used device is the Air Guardian® II.

UV irradiant energy in the sealed Air Guardian® II device is over 106,000 millijoules /cm2. This irradiant energy is, by contrast, 17,000 times higher than the energy needed to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 at 4 Log in 26 seconds, as shown in laboratory testing.

Air is captured and held inside Air Guardian using quiet, powerful intake fans

Air is vented at distance from the intake fans, limiting re-ingestion of just-vented upper-room air (this is an issue with single intake/exhaust sealed devices)

Particle and Pathogen Oxidation - Ingested air is initially passed through a localized, intense ROS (reactive oxygen species) cloud. The ROS species exert extreme destruction/inactivation

Intense UV-C irradiance over time - ingested air is forced through a series of channels, continuously exposed to UV-C irradiance, for as long as 30 seconds, depending on device models and options

Intense ROS oxidation over time - internal channels are flooded with UV-C wavelengths, with extreme intensity, up to 106,000 mJ/cm^2, which a) inactivate and destroy pathogens and particles and b) trigger continuous ROS species creation within channels

Air passes through HEPA-like micron and carbon filters - but the HEPA-like filters are not the primary source of inactivation and particle destruction/disassembly. The patented multiple mode process which Air Guardian uses inactive, destruct, or disassemble most particles before reaching the filters.

Precision Airflow venting has a protective effect on room occupants, which prevents disease transmission and facilitates more complete and rapid room air changes

Air Change rates (ACH) are frequent, as often as every few minutes, depending on device selection

Air Guardian’s UV-C disinfection and airflow design elements are supported and recommended by ASHRAE, EPA, CDC, and REHVA. Oxidation for VOC removal has been used for decades in many industries.

It will become increasingly important in the COVID-19 era using chemical disinfectants, direct UV-C surface disinfection (which can off-gas harmful compounds, and new expected guidelines for indoor air quality expected from state and federal legislatures.




There are some scientists that believe SARS-CoV-2 is not really "airborne-transmitted" because it is primarly caused by larger droplet nuclei that do not travel long distances in the air. Thus, close contact is needed for transmission. How would you respond?


Many studies do, in fact, validate airborne transmission in some detail. While it can be transmitted by close contact droplet nuclei transmission, infectious virus particles can remain airborne and viable for up to 3 hours. One of the core elements of the Immaculight value proposition is in the reduction in airborne particle transmission and cross-airflow contamination. I demonstrating airborne transmission potential, the CDC and others oten refer to the Ganzhou, China study https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/7/20-0764 as well as other publications, particularly with regard to the effects of assisted airflow and cross contamination, such as those noted in the Ganzhou study. Other studies include https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15102999/ and related references. There is also evidence of viral spread via plumbing and heating and air conditioning sources. It is fair to say that it is generally accepted in the scientific community in the US, via CDC, EPA, and FDA publications that key requirements for infection prevention are ventilation, dilution, and removal of viral particles from a room space. Airflow guidance sources in the US and Europe, such as ASHRAE and REHVA, see https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32361528/ acknowledge the potential transport of infectious particles through venting and associated airflow, and have provided SARS-CoV-2 based recommendation on limiting re-circulation of ingested air and the cubic feet per minute airflow pressure. As such, our device, Immaculight™, proposes the use of protective, downward venting of pressurized (53 CFM), purified air, as an additional means to prevent the entry or cross contamination of viral particles. See https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6072925/




Does the Air Guardian system emit any volatile organic compounds?


No. Other products which use TiO2 photo-electrochemical oxidation (PECO) have, at times, been accused of emitting VOCs, such as formaldehyde, as part of the PECO and UV-C irradiatioin process. In short-duration expsoure to catalyzed TiO2 and ultraviolet irradiation, there would be the possibility for VOC creation. In the Air Guardian soltuion, oxidation is intense and persistent, and lasts between 12-25 seconds within the sealed device. The protracted oxidation process is able to break the chemical bonds of VOCs and reduce them to normal ambient air molecules before venting them from the Immaculight device.





405nm / 470nm

Is 405 nm on the visible spectrum?


Yes, the 405nm is visible light, just above the ultraviolet spectrum. It is harmless to humans but proven to destroy bacteria, mold, fungus, and yeast. The hue - or visible color - of that particular wavelength is purple-violet. Usually, 405nm is just another part of the in the normal visible spectrum. However, when that wavelength is engineered into a spike for disinfection purposes, it can dominate the visible spectrum with a purple-violet color. Our patented chip not only prevents the purple-violet color from appearing, but it also suppresses harmful blue-light wavelengths in the 435-455 nm spectrum that can damage the retinal cells in the eye.




Regarding the 405 and 470 nm wavelengths, what about [destroying] good microorganisms (bacteria, etc.)?


CleanWhite's 405nm and 470 nm wavelengths, given enough continuous exposure, will oxidize and reduce microbial colonies on any surface, including human skin.

Rather than removing "good bacteria" from the skin, dermatologists often use blue light in phototherapy to make the skin healthier. Wavelengths matter. CleanWhite only allows blue light spikes of 405nm and 470nm. Harmful blue light wavelengths, between 425-450nm, which can cause skin discoloration and damage retinal cells in the eye, are completely suppressed in the Cleanwhite spectrum.

Most beneficial microbes are inside our bodies and few are known to be beneficial to the skin. In fact, "contact transmission" of disease is usually the result of transferring harmful microbes on the skin to mucous membranes in the eyes, nose, and other areas.

See link for supporting research:

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263892858_405_nm_light_technology_for_the_inactivation_of_pathogens_and_its_potential_role_for_environmental_disinfection_and_infection_control




Is it harmful to live or work in an isolated place for the long term [under CleanWhite luminaires]?


There are no harmful effects of working under 405/470 nm wavelengths, regardless of the duration or periodicity. The fixture watts range from 50-120 and can be controlled incrementally.





Air filtration systems






Volatile Compound Removal and Emission